YDS İngilizce Soruları 7 (2012 KPDS İlkbahar - Diyolog Doldurma, Paragraf tamamlama, Anlamca en yakın)

  • 1) Even if we have a lot of work, ----.
    A) we have some difficulties in making our future plans clear
    B) we do not usually complain about being busy
    C) there are various conditions that affect our behaviour
    D) we never tend to pay attention to relationships
    E) some details can remind us of our early experiences
  • 2) Deception gains a slight edge over deception detection when the interactions are few in number and are among strangers. If you spend enough time with the people you
    interact with, they may leak their true intent through their behaviour. However, when interactions are anonymous or infrequent, behavioural cues cannot be
    read against a background of known behaviour, so more general attributes must be used. Because of the negative consequences of being detected, people are
    expected to be nervous when lying. In response to concern over appearing nervous, people may exert control, trying to suppress behaviour, with possible side
    effects detectable by the listener such as a planned, rehearsed impression. Lying is also cognitively demanding. You must suppress the truth and construct a falsehood that is plausible, then tell it in a convincing way and remember the story. Cognitive load appears to play the biggest role. When lies are not well-rehearsed, people have to think too hard, and this causes several effects, including overcontrol that leads to blinking and fidgeting less and using fewer hand gestures, longer pauses and higher-pitched voices. Of course, if self-deception is involved, you are less likely to give off
    the normal cues of lying that others might perceive.

    The author is of the opinion that ----.

    A) anyone can become a good liar as long as a rehearsal process is involved
    B) lying makes people feel relaxed if they know the lie will not be detected
    C) people show fewer signs of lying if they believe the lies themselves
    D) lies are impossible to detect unless you know a person well
    E) lying is an almost effortless process for many people
  • 3) A behavioural pattern is considered to be innate when it is essential for survival and already present at birth, as it is predetermined by the genetic make-up of the organism. A reflex is the simplest form of an innate behaviour. It is a programmed reaction to an outside stimulus that is carried out unconsciously. For example, the eyelids close automatically as soon as a draft of air stimulates the surface of the eye and the pupils of a cat will contract as soon as it looks into bright light. These are reflexes that an organism does not have to learn; they are referred to as unconditioned reflexes. An
    unconditioned reflex is always an unconscious response, and therefore it is impossible to suppress it at will. Such a reflex always requires a stimulus that triggers a certain behaviour. Many unconditioned reflexes exist in order to protect the organism, for
    example coughing, nausea, or the draw back reflex of the body part that touches a hot object. Anatomically, a reflex is based on a chain of stimulus and reaction, which is referred to as a reflex arc. A well-known example is the knee jerk or patellar reflex in humans, which is triggered by a light hit to the patellar tendon in the knee. The knee jerk reflex is often used in medicine to test the function of the spinal cord and associated nerves. The real purpose of this reflex is to protect humans from injury when tripping.

    We can understand from the passage that unconditioned reflexes are behaviours that ----.

    A) can frequently be observed in animals but rarely in humans
    B) display great complexity in both humans and animals
    C) help an organism to protect itself against outside dangers
    D) are limited to organs such as the eye and the legs
    E) can vary substantially among individuals in some circumstances
  • 4) Jane:
     A study I’ve recently read about claims that 65 percent of mothers and 70 percent of fathers exhibited a preference for one of their children. You’ve got two. Which one is your favourite?
    Anna:
     I don’t have a favourite child! And I don’t think any parent could say they have a favourite.
    Jane:
     ----
    Anna:
     That’s ridiculous! Don’t believe everything you read in magazines.

    A) But do you treat your older child differently than your younger one?
    B) I suppose you’re right. I’ve got only one daughter, so I can’t really say.
    C) So you’re saying that you love your son more than your daughter. Any reason why?
    D) You’re doing exactly what the study claims. You’re refusing to admit you favour one child over the other.
    E) What about you? I suppose you have a favourite child. Is it your son or your daughter?
  • 5) There has never been a better time to be a virus researcher, thanks in part to inexpensive genetic sequencing that allows scientists to rapidly isolate disease-causing microorganisms.
    Anlamca en yakın cümleyi bulunuz.

    A) It is the best time for virus researchers as they now have cheap techniques such as genetic sequencing that helps them quickly recognize disease-causing microorganisms.
    B) Partly because of cheap genetic sequencing techniques which enable scientists to separate disease-causing microorganisms quickly, it is now a perfect time to be a virus researcher.
    C) Thanks to cheap genetic sequencing, virus researchers have never had a better opportunity to distinguish between disease-causing microorganisms.
    D) Inexpensive genetic sequencing, which makes it possible for scientists to quickly separate microorganisms into classes, has made the lives of virus researchers easy.
    E) Due to innovative genetic sequencing, virus researchers are now having a great time partly because they can easily distinguish disease-causing microorganisms.
  • 6) The Amazon Rainforest is famous for its breathtaking diversity of plants along with its
    considerable number of animal species.
    Anlamca en yakın cümleyi bulunuz.

    A) The Amazon Rainforest is widely known for the existence of wonderful plants rather than the incredible animal species found there.
    B) It is well known that the Amazon Rainforest contains a high quantity of plants together with an increasing number of animal species.
    C) The Amazon Rainforest is notable to many with its large collection of plants and animal species that cannot be found anywhere else.
    D) Besides having plenty of animal species, the Amazon Rainforest is home to a great number of marvellous plants.
    E) In addition to an abundant number of animal species, the Amazon Rainforest is known for its stunning variety of plants.
  • 7) While the country is prepared for rapid development, the President knows that no amount of economic growth can ever compensate for the degradation of
    the country’s natural resources and rich biodiversity.
    Anlamca en yakın cümleyi bulunuz.

    A) Because of the exhaustion of the country’s natural resources and rich biodiversity, the President was uncertain whether to continue or halt the rapid development of the country.
    B) Since the country is about to develop quickly, the President is ready to make use of the country’s natural resources and abundant biodiversity and he will compensate the people for their loss.
    C) The President thinks that no economic growth can substitute for the loss of the country’s natural resources because rapid development would mean that the destruction of the country is finishing them off.
    D) Although the country seems ready to develop, the President is aware that no economic growth could make up for the deterioration of the country’s natural
    resources and abundant biodiversity.
    E) The country is ready for rapid development; however, the government does not realize that abundant resources and biodiversity could be lost as a result of
    this economic growth.
  • 8) Not only the general populace, but also those who work in the field of economics find it difficult to understand the differences and the relationships between theory and practice.
    Anlamca en yakın cümleyi bulunuz.

    A) The general population, including those working in the field of economics, can understand the theory, but cannot grasp the practice of economics.
    B) Understanding the differences and the relationships between theory and practice in economics is challenging for those who do not specialize in economics.
    C) Both the general public and the people working in the area of economics fail to fully comprehend how theory and practice differ from and relate to each other.
    D) Ordinary people have difficulty in understanding the theory and practice of economics but the people working in the field can see them clearly.
    E) Specialists understand the differences between theory and practice in the field of economics because they can see how they affect the general populace.
  • 9) Contrary to your agreement with your mechanic, he fails to inform you of the possible cost for the repair of the car. Upon learning the very high bill, you say: ----
    Verilen bu durumda hangisi söylenilebilir?

    A) That’s a huge amount of money. You should have called me before doing the work.
    B) I’m not prepared to pay such a huge bill because you didn’t tell me before that you only accept cash.
    C) I’m sorry, but I won’t pay a cent of this bill, because I could have repaired it myself.
    D) You should have left a message when you called and told me what work needed to be done.
    E) Will it be repaired soon? I really need to use the car.
  • 10) You have an appointment to see a doctor and you have been waiting in the reception area for about an hour. It is clear that the doctor has been very busy, as the waiting area has been very full, but now you are the only one still waiting. You go to the
    receptionist and say politely: ----
    Verilen bu durumda hangisi söylenilebilir?

    A) Do you have any idea when this crowd of people will clear up? It’s starting to get depressing.
    B) I’ve been waiting for an hour to see the doctor. Will I have to wait much longer?
    C) Clearly the doctor doesn’t want to see me today. This has been a complete waste of time.
    D) I don’t see anyone else waiting. I’ll go in and see the doctor now.
    E) I don’t think I will be able to come to my appointment next week. Sorry about that.
  • 11) You and your friend are worried about her newborn baby’s constantly changing behaviour. Because your friend works, she relies on different carers while she is at work. You feel that the baby’s problems are due to the frequently changing
    caregivers. So you say to your friend: ----
    Verilen bu durumda hangisi söylenilebilir?

    A) I really think you ought to consult a paediatrician as soon as possible because your choice of babysitter is quite an important decision.
    B) Why don’t you wait a little? I think everything will be fine in a few months’ time and then you can get a new caregiver.
    C) You know, all babies can go through difficult times, but yours is rather different. I guess you should stop working.
    D) Have you ever considered that there may be too many people taking care of the baby? Maybe this is part of the problem.
    E) I think the caregivers must reach an agreement on the reasons for the baby’s behaviour.
  • 12) Logic as an academic discipline was invented by Aristotle and is concerned with argument, validity, proof, definition and consistency. Undoubtedly, even before formal logic was recognized, people were reasoning in consistent and logical ways. ---- During the Middle Ages, Arabic and European cultures also contributed to the field. During the
    nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there were numerous developments in mathematical logic.

    A) Aristotle taught many subjects including syllogism, an argument in the form of two premises and a conclusion.
    B) To introduce formal logic to students, it is useful to explain that logic examines how arguments are constructed.
    C) Therefore, Aristotle, the Father of Logic, referred to inductive logic as “a passage from individuals to universals”.
    D) There are several kinds of logic, the most common of which are deductive and inductive logic.
    E) Nevertheless, Aristotle was the first philosopher to identify and formalize rules for this branch of philosophy.
  • 13) Eating too much fatty food, exercising too little and smoking can raise your future risk of heart disease. ---- Previous studies have linked exposure to environmental pollution to an increased risk of heart problems, but the two analyses now show that
    poor air quality can lead to a heart attack or stroke within as little as a few hours after exposure. Scientists found that people exposed to high levels of pollutants were up to 5 percent more likely to suffer a heart attack within days of exposure than those with lower exposure.

    A) This can be reduced, however, if you exercise outside in the fresh air.
    B) Heart disease is reversible if the underlying disease can be treated.
    C) But there is another factor that can trigger heart problems more immediately.
    D) The risks are relatively low for people who “smoke socially” and have lower cholesterol levels.
    E) Strict regulation of pollutants may not only improve air quality but could also become necessary to protect public health.
  • 14) Four hundred years after he was born, the 17th century Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi is making a long-overdue international comeback. Explorer, peace broker, tax collector, war chronicler and mystic, Evliya spent 40 years travelling in the Middle East. His 10-volume Seyahatname is an epic travelogue that provides a fascinating account of
    everyday life in the 17 th century. ---- UNESCO decreed him Man of the Year in 2011 and the recent publication of An Ottoman Traveller allows English-language readers to discover his masterpiece.

    A) Though previously little known outside of Turkey, Evliya is finally going global.
    B) You can still feel the joy of Evliya’s journey across Turkey’s vast and unspoiled countryside.
    C) This work was also appreciated by foreigners, particularly English speakers.
    D) Evliya loved eating and wrote in detail of the regional specialties he sampled.
    E) One can trace the early stages of Evliya’s journey from Istanbul to Mecca.
  • 15) Living in a country with the world’s highest murder rate, Hondurans have grown grimly accustomed to untimely deaths. ---- A fire in a prison in Comayagua may have been the world’s deadliest prison fire ever. Rescue crews said they had no way to save
    the prisoners, because they could not find the guards with the keys to release the inmates from the overcrowded prison.

    A) Therefore, the national prison director has admitted the system is failing and needs a lot of investment.
    B) The cause of the disaster has not been determined, but officials suggest it might have been a protesting inmate setting his mattress alight.
    C) Yet even they were shocked on February 15 th to hear reports of a further cruel consequence of the country’s high crime rate.
    D) However, the scale of the tragedy became clear when the Honduran President called it “a day of deep pain”.
    E) Honduran inmates suffered from malnutrition, poor sanitation and insufficient medical care, and they had access to weapons.
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