YDS Soruları 6 (2012 KPDS İlkbahar )

  • 1) ----, while the early pioneers of intelligence testing were mostly interested in theoretical questions about the nature of intelligence.
    A) IQ tests initially ignored the development of intelligence
    B) Determining what intelligence is and how it changes has not been easy
    C) Theoretical issues in intelligence testing tradition have overshadowed practical ones
    D) Any approach to intelligence must have confronted the question of its structure
    E) The pragmatic origins and uses of IQ tests have recently been emphasized
  • 2) When employees lack skill and interest, ----.
    A) performing a job well means people should also help manage it
    B) expecting them to lead a project successfully is unrealistic
    C) the goal would be to increase communication in a unit
    D) unnecessary interference and distractions will cease
    E) too much appraisal will make it tough for people to concentrate
  • 3) If they are striving to do their work ethically, ----.
    A) history teachers will need to discuss the moral implications of events with their students
    B) no one can effectively teach children how people should behave in a conflict
    C) citizens’ worldviews are often related to the realities of their daily lives
    D) there will be aspects of human rights that underpin society
    E) how processes are described in a society is very important
  • 4) Although plays were being written as early as 300 BC, ----.
    A) the Greek audience’s view of the stage was framed by the landscape and sky
    B) Roman theatres included large amphitheatres for the audience which could be built into hills
    C) the action of the play took place on a raised stage or pulpitum
    D) the first permanent theatres where they could be staged properly were not built until much later
    E) the function and proportion of theatrical elements changed significantly
  • 5) A 10 per. increase in the cost of hospital serviceswould cause poorer households to cut back their hospital care by 4.7 per., ----.
    A) in spite of the fact that many developing nations subsidize medical care by about 5 per.
    B) thus the difference between poor and wealthy households is even larger
    C) whereas the wealthy would have to do the same by only 2.9 per.
    D) because the higher price of medical care would not affect the wealthy at all
    E) but the same pattern occurs in the demand for medical services in poorer households
  • 6) Some firms provide special services for frequent buyers such as encouraging repeat business with discounts ----.
    A) because their previous experience may not be relevant
    B) so that making purchases from them becomes a part of the customer’s routine
    C) although this practice is similar to the process of problem solving
    D) when consumers face a really new concept
    E) as it does not confirm how long this offer will be valid
  • 7) Enthusiasts in some countries had been building small rockets and thinking about space travel for many years, ----.
    A) which went on to launch the first astronauts on the Redstone rocket in 1961
    B) therefore most of this work involved building large rockets for actual space travel
    C) whereas a Russian teacher worked out many of the principles of rocket science 50 years ago
    D) but it was a team of scientists and engineers in Germany that finally made the dream a reality
    E) even though they had been fascinated by the idea of space travel since their childhood
  • 8) ---, London has decided to transform its poorest neighbourhood into a display of what the Olympic Games can mean beyond medals.
    A) Since the athletes are competing to win gold, silver and bronze medals
    B) Because many people question the value of hosting the Olympic Games
    C) Whenever the idea of hosting the Olympic Games emerges
    D) Though the political support would be dependent on being chosen to host the Olympic Games
    E) If hosting international events is considered to be a valuable experience
  • 9) In general, copyright law takes the view that computer programs are not patentable ----.
    A) when an antivirus program is recommended for safe computer use
    B) if checking e-mails on a daily basis has become a habit
    C) now that lengthy court battles benefit neither party
    D) even though some programs have simply undergone a digital transformation
    E) unless they are genuine innovations with industrial applications
  • 10) Deception gains a slight edge over deception detection when the interactions are few in number and are among strangers. If you spend enough time with the people you
    interact with, they may leak their true intent through their behaviour. However, when interactions are anonymous or infrequent, behavioural cues cannot be
    read against a background of known behaviour, so more general attributes must be used. Because of the negative consequences of being detected, people are
    expected to be nervous when lying. In response to concern over appearing nervous, people may exert control, trying to suppress behaviour, with possible side
    effects detectable by the listener such as a planned, rehearsed impression. Lying is also cognitively demanding. You must suppress the truth and construct a falsehood that is plausible, then tell it in a convincing way and remember the story. Cognitive load appears to play the biggest role. When lies are not well-rehearsed, people have to think too hard, and this causes several effects, including overcontrol that leads to blinking and fidgeting less and using fewer hand gestures, longer pauses and higher-pitched voices. Of course, if self-deception is involved, you are less likely to give off
    the normal cues of lying that others might perceive.

    According to the passage, deception becomes easier than detecting deception when ----.

    A) people involved do not know each other well
    B) the person telling lies shows signs of nervousness
    C) the listener is cognitively challenged by the discussion
    D) people in a conversation do not have common attributes
    E) the listener has a general view about the people they are interacting with
  • 11) Deception gains a slight edge over deception detection when the interactions are few in number and are among strangers. If you spend enough time with the people you
    interact with, they may leak their true intent through their behaviour. However, when interactions are anonymous or infrequent, behavioural cues cannot be
    read against a background of known behaviour, so more general attributes must be used. Because of the negative consequences of being detected, people are
    expected to be nervous when lying. In response to concern over appearing nervous, people may exert control, trying to suppress behaviour, with possible side
    effects detectable by the listener such as a planned, rehearsed impression. Lying is also cognitively demanding. You must suppress the truth and construct a falsehood that is plausible, then tell it in a convincing way and remember the story. Cognitive load appears to play the biggest role. When lies are not well-rehearsed, people have to think too hard, and this causes several effects, including overcontrol that leads to blinking and fidgeting less and using fewer hand gestures, longer pauses and higher-pitched voices. Of course, if self-deception is involved, you are less likely to give off
    the normal cues of lying that others might perceive.

    According to the passage, ----.

    A) deceiving people with whom you have problematic
    relationships requires more effort
    B) the possible negative results of being caught do not bother people
    C) establishing control over behaviours has side effects that cannot be detected by man or machine
    D) lying involves a lot of mental processing leading to observable side effects
    E) deception requires memorizing a very detailed and elaborate lie
  • 12) Deception gains a slight edge over deception detection when the interactions are few in number and are among strangers. If you spend enough time with the people you
    interact with, they may leak their true intent through their behaviour. However, when interactions are anonymous or infrequent, behavioural cues cannot be
    read against a background of known behaviour, so more general attributes must be used. Because of the negative consequences of being detected, people are
    expected to be nervous when lying. In response to concern over appearing nervous, people may exert control, trying to suppress behaviour, with possible side
    effects detectable by the listener such as a planned, rehearsed impression. Lying is also cognitively demanding. You must suppress the truth and construct a falsehood that is plausible, then tell it in a convincing way and remember the story. Cognitive load appears to play the biggest role. When lies are not well-rehearsed, people have to think too hard, and this causes several effects, including overcontrol that leads to blinking and fidgeting less and using fewer hand gestures, longer pauses and higher-pitched voices. Of course, if self-deception is involved, you are less likely to give off
    the normal cues of lying that others might perceive.

    The author’s main purpose is to ----.

    A) give practical advice to people who are required to detect deception as part of their occupations
    B) describe the nature, manifestations and mental aspects of deception
    C) present conflicting views on deception, deception detection and self-deception
    D) inform readers about the possible consequences of lying if the lie is not planned in advance
    E) present the challenges of deception as well as the ways to overcome these challenges
  • 13) A behavioural pattern is considered to be innate when it is essential for survival and already present at birth, as it is predetermined by the genetic make-up of the organism. A reflex is the simplest form of an innate behaviour. It is a programmed reaction to an outside stimulus that is carried out unconsciously. For example, the eyelids close automatically as soon as a draft of air stimulates the surface of the eye and the pupils of a cat will contract as soon as it looks into bright light. These are reflexes that an organism does not have to learn; they are referred to as unconditioned reflexes. An
    unconditioned reflex is always an unconscious response, and therefore it is impossible to suppress it at will. Such a reflex always requires a stimulus that triggers a certain behaviour. Many unconditioned reflexes exist in order to protect the organism, for
    example coughing, nausea, or the draw back reflex of the body part that touches a hot object. Anatomically, a reflex is based on a chain of stimulus and reaction, which is referred to as a reflex arc. A well-known example is the knee jerk or patellar reflex in humans, which is triggered by a light hit to the patellar tendon in the knee. The knee jerk reflex is often used in medicine to test the function of the spinal cord and associated nerves. The real purpose of this reflex is to protect humans from injury when tripping.

    It is understood from the passage that reflexes ----.

    A) can cause damage to an organism if they are not strictly controlled
    B) represent series of behaviours present only in human-like organisms
    C) are passed on through an organism’s genetic structure
    D) are learned by an organism as it struggles to survive
    E) are difficult to differentiate from voluntary movements
  • 14) A behavioural pattern is considered to be innate when it is essential for survival and already present at birth, as it is predetermined by the genetic make-up of the organism. A reflex is the simplest form of an innate behaviour. It is a programmed reaction to an outside stimulus that is carried out unconsciously. For example, the eyelids close automatically as soon as a draft of air stimulates the surface of the eye and the pupils of a cat will contract as soon as it looks into bright light. These are reflexes that an organism does not have to learn; they are referred to as unconditioned reflexes. An
    unconditioned reflex is always an unconscious response, and therefore it is impossible to suppress it at will. Such a reflex always requires a stimulus that triggers a certain behaviour. Many unconditioned reflexes exist in order to protect the organism, for
    example coughing, nausea, or the draw back reflex of the body part that touches a hot object. Anatomically, a reflex is based on a chain of stimulus and reaction, which is referred to as a reflex arc. A well-known example is the knee jerk or patellar reflex in humans, which is triggered by a light hit to the patellar tendon in the knee. The knee jerk reflex is often used in medicine to test the function of the spinal cord and associated nerves. The real purpose of this reflex is to protect humans from injury when tripping.

    It is clearly stated in the passage that ----.

    A) there is no conscious control over unconditioned reflexes
    B) it is useful to suppress certain unconditioned reflexes such as nausea
    C) unconditioned reflexes are learned responses to certain stimuli
    D) the purpose of some unconditioned reflexes is unknown
    E) unconditioned reflexes are activated even when there is no stimulus present
  • 15) A behavioural pattern is considered to be innate when it is essential for survival and already present at birth, as it is predetermined by the genetic make-up of the organism. A reflex is the simplest form of an innate behaviour. It is a programmed reaction to an outside stimulus that is carried out unconsciously. For example, the eyelids close automatically as soon as a draft of air stimulates the surface of the eye and the pupils of a cat will contract as soon as it looks into bright light. These are reflexes that an organism does not have to learn; they are referred to as unconditioned reflexes. An
    unconditioned reflex is always an unconscious response, and therefore it is impossible to suppress it at will. Such a reflex always requires a stimulus that triggers a certain behaviour. Many unconditioned reflexes exist in order to protect the organism, for
    example coughing, nausea, or the draw back reflex of the body part that touches a hot object. Anatomically, a reflex is based on a chain of stimulus and reaction, which is referred to as a reflex arc. A well-known example is the knee jerk or patellar reflex in humans, which is triggered by a light hit to the patellar tendon in the knee. The knee jerk reflex is often used in medicine to test the function of the spinal cord and associated nerves. The real purpose of this reflex is to protect humans from injury when tripping.

    According to the passage, the knee jerk reflex is ----.

    A) necessary to protect an organism from a hot object
    B) a very rare reaction to a physical stimulus
    C) useless in terms of helping a person to survive
    D) used to assess certain anatomic functions
    E) a reaction that indicates a severe spinal cord injury
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